Guidelines for Authors

Final Formatting Requirements

Begin the document with the title of the article, followed by the abstract, followed by 3-5 keywords, then the introduction and the remaining elements of the article.

Do not include the abstract, page numbers, headers, footers or biographical details on the manuscript.

Submit the abstract to the abstract section on the submission page.

Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word or RTF files are accepted).

Page size should be 21 x 29.7cm (A4).

All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 2.5 cm, including your tables and figures.

Do not indent paragraphs.

1.5 line space your text.

Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text.

Use a single column layout with margins left justified.

Font: 12 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available.

Please copy edit your manuscript– ensuring that it is produced to a very high standard of English.

make sure that all citations are included in the bibliography, and all items in the bibliography are cited (this is the work of the author(s) NOT the editor(s)).

Language & Grammar

All submissions must be in English. Except for common foreign words and phrases, the use of foreign words and phrases should be avoided. Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined. Spelling can be US or UK English as long as usage is consistent.

Please ensure your Article has been ‘spell-checked’ and ‘grammar-checked’.

Article Length

It is normally expected that Manuscripts should be between 6000-8000 words in length.

Use of Colour

The font for the main body of text must be black.

We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use colour in the production of figures, maps, etc. However, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers’ problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colours in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible (try printing in B&W yourself to test this).

Please ensure that there are no coloured mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final mark-up.

Emphasized text

Whenever possible, use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of colour to emphasize text is discouraged.

Font faces

Except possibly where special symbols are needed, use Times or the closest comparable font available. If you desire a second font, use a simple sans serif font (e.g. Arial).

Font size

The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Avoid the use of fonts smaller than 6pt.


Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text by their fonts: use the same font face for all headings and indicate the hierarchy by increasing / reducing the font size. There should be space above and below headings.


Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.

Tables and Figures

Where possible tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables and figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type tables. Tables or figures must never be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within the prescribed 2.5 margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.

Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text. Please supply editable files.

Figures should be high quality (1200 dpi for line art, 600 dpi for grayscale and 300 dpi for colour, at the correct size). Figures should be supplied in one of our preferred file formats: EPS, PS, JPEG, TIFF, or Microsoft Word (DOC or DOCX) files are acceptable for figures that have been drawn in Word.


Please use the Chicago Referencing Style (as detailed in the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition) and ensure all references are in the correct format for this journal. The Chicago referencing style offers the option to either use a numbered note (footnote/endnote) variant or an author-date variant. Either is acceptable for this journal, but the use must be consistent and according to the Chicago Manual guidelines.

  • If choosing the numbered note variant, the notes should be given in footnotes, rather than endnotes. An additional, separate bibliography will not be required.
  • If choosing the author-date variant, a full reference list must be included. References should appear directly at the end of the document - after the last sentence of your submission. Please insert a line break - not a page break - and begin your references on the same page, if possible. References should be left justified. Please check that all citations are included in the reference list, and all items in the reference list are cited.

It is the author's obligation to provide complete references with the necessary information.
For more information about the Chicago Referencing Style please refer to https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html

Copyright Notice

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  • The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
  • Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
  • The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions.
  • The Author represents and warrants that:
    1. the Work is the Author’s original work;
    2. the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
    3. The author has complied with copyright law.
    4. the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
    5. the Work has not previously been published;
    6. the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
    7. the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
    8. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold the Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
    9. Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal website.