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1.4 CHEMICAL SCIENCES, 1.6 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 3.1 BASIC MEDICINE
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and one of the most important public health challenges facing mankind. Fagonia cretica is a medicinal plant used widely in the Punjab in Pakistan. A recent survey has demonstrated that traditional healers and herbalists frequently use this plant to treat diabetes. In the current study, the traditional medicine was prepared as a tea, and the profile of the main metabolites present in the traditional medicine was analysed via LC/MS/MS. The extract was shown to contain a number of phenolic glycosides including quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-glycoside, kaempferol-3(6′-malonylglucoside), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin 3-(6″-malonylglucoside) in addition to two unidentified sulphonated saponins. The traditional medicine inhibits α-glucosidase in vitro with an IC50 of 4.62 µg/mL. The hypoglycaemic effect of the traditional medicine was evaluated in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats, using glibenclamide as an internal control. The preparation (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) was administered once a day for 21 consecutive days. The dose of 500 mg/kg was effective in the management of the disease, causing a 45 % decrease in the plasma glucose level at the end of the experimental period. Histological analysis of pancreatic sections confirmed that streptozotocin/nictotinamide treatment caused destruction of pancreatic islet cells, while pancreatic sections from the treatment groups showed that both the extract and glibenclamide partially prevented this deterioration. The mechanism of this protective effect is unclear. However, such a finding suggests that ingestion of the tea could confer additional benefits and should be investigated further.
Nazir, I., Rahman, N., Alvi, Z., Rahman, H., Sendker, J., Zhang, T., Frankish, N. and Sheridan, H. (2017). Antidiabetic activities of an LC/MS Fingerprinted aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica L. in preclinical models. Planta Medica, 83, 1141-1148.