This article describes the findings of empirical research conducted in Hungary in 2017 for a Country Report under the EU Erasmus+ Project: NQF-IN - developing organisational and financial models for including non-formal sector qualifications in national qualifications frameworks. The research involved interviews with non-formal training providers focused on the possibilities and obstacles of inclusion of ‘certifications’ issued by non-formal training providers into the Hungarian Qualifications Framework. According to the interviewees, current regulation requires a lot of administration thereby hindering the flexible organisation of training, limiting the tailoring of training to customers’ needs, and resulting in the loss of ownership of their own programmes through the licencing process. In addition, employers have little confidence in ‘paper’ qualifications: they are more confident in their own competence assessment methods. As a result, instead of creating transparency, the training sector is divided regarding the principle that output regulation based on learning outcomes will only be implemented in a narrower, regulated sector.





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