in which private commercial tour operators organise pilgrimages to Makkah (hajj and umrah). As a result, the development of these religious tour operators has formed a market, which is described as bisnis hajj dan umroh (pilgrimage business). Thus, this study examines social space and context in the commodification of Islam in Indonesia, by analysing the bisnis hajj dan umroh. In conclusion, the study shows that the development of the pilgrimage market in Indonesia has cultivated new social space among stakeholders, and creates social context based on individual piety, connecting economic development with personal spiritual commitment. The quality, popularity, and charisma of the ustaz (pilgrimage leader) in religious tours strongly impacts the level of customer commitment to the market, based on their spiritual preferences and emotions.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.





To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.