in which private commercial tour operators organise pilgrimages to Makkah (hajj and umrah). As a result, the development of these religious tour operators has formed a market, which is described as bisnis hajj dan umroh (pilgrimage business). Thus, this study examines social space and context in the commodification of Islam in Indonesia, by analysing the bisnis hajj dan umroh. In conclusion, the study shows that the development of the pilgrimage market in Indonesia has cultivated new social space among stakeholders, and creates social context based on individual piety, connecting economic development with personal spiritual commitment. The quality, popularity, and charisma of the ustaz (pilgrimage leader) in religious tours strongly impacts the level of customer commitment to the market, based on their spiritual preferences and emotions.
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"Mapping Pilgrimage in the Marketplace: Social Contexts of Bisnis Hajj dan Umroh in Indonesia,"
International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage:
5, Article 3.
Available at: https://arrow.tudublin.ie/ijrtp/vol11/iss5/3