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This paper investigates how Umrah and Hajj travellers’ needs and wants are influenced by their acceptance (behaviour) of new norms practices (social distancing, hygiene standards, wearing face masks) in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The cross-sectional survey utilises the purposive sampling method with 216 respondents. Partial-least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLSSEM) was used to confirm the study model and test the hypotheses. Additionally, this study validates the role of age in influencing the new norms of travel behaviour through the PLS-SEM multi-group analysis (MGA). Path Analysis results revealed that psychological needs, safety needs and selfactualisation influence the new norms of travel behaviour. However, self-esteem and belonging needs insignificantly affect their new norms of travel behaviour. Based on the MGA, this study confirms that age / generation plays a significant role in the new travel behaviour practices. This study contributes to the literature on religious tourism and the necessary new norms and changes explicitly relating to Umrah and Hajj travel through the lens of Maslow’s theory of hierarchical needs. The study also contributes to a better understanding of tourists’ post-pandemic needs and motivational facets, which helps redesign religious travel experiences.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.





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