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This study analyses various institutions’ halal certification and standards in the Philippines and their potential for halal tourism. The demand for halal services and products has been increasing in the Philippines, however, the major halal certifiers in the country uphold different standards, leading to confusion and abuse in halal accreditation and certification. The unification of halal standards is a complex process due to varying interpretations and thus, this research utilised case study methods to analyse the similarities and differences of the three major halal certifiers in the country within the lenses of the Work System Elements Framework and the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework which examine the participants, processes, information needs, and environment. Results show that halal certifiers do not have a common standard in their certification practices. Additionally, there is no national certification scheme or a standard scheme that certifiers can follow. Therefore, each certifying body has its own standard, scheme, and policy regarding halal certification, resulting in a fragmented development of certification schemes. An appropriate halal standard in the Philippines is essential to attract Muslim visitors, as the country initiated a halal programme that aims to increase the arrival of international Muslim travellers. The findings provide implications for developing and managing halal tourism and for diversifying tourism products in the Philippines. Further, this study makes a valuable contribution to the understudied phenomenon of halal certification in a Muslim-minority country that could benefit from incorporating halal tourism in their destinations.





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