Document Type



Microbiology, Public and environmental health

Publication Details

Marcos, P.; Doyle, A.; Whyte, P.; Rogers, T.R.; McElroy, M.; Fanning, S.; Frias, J.; Bolton, D. Characterization of Food Chain Clostridioides difficile Isolates in Terms of Ribotype and Antimicrobial Resistance. Microorganisms 2023, 11, 1296. microorganisms11051296


The aim of this study was to characterize C. difficile isolates from the farm, abattoir, and retail outlets in Ireland in terms of ribotype and antibiotic resistance (vancomycin, erythromycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, and rifampicin) using PCR and E-test methods, respectively. The most common ribotype in all stages of the food chain (including retail foods) was 078 and a variant (RT078/4). Less commonly reported (014/0, 002/1, 049, and 205) and novel (RT530, 547, and 683) ribotypes were also detected, but at lower frequencies. Approximately 72% (26/36 tested) of the isolates tested were resistant to at least one antibiotic, with the majority of these (65%; 17/26) displaying a multi-drug (three to five antibiotics) resistant phenotype. It was concluded that ribotype 078, a hypervirulent strain commonly associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) in Ireland, was the most frequent ribotype along the food chain, resistance to clinically important antibiotics was common in C. difficile food chain isolates, and there was no relationship between ribotype and antibiotic resistance profile.

DOI microorganisms11051296


This project was funded by the Food Institutional Research Measure (FIRM) administered by the Department for Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM) (Grant number 17F206). Pilar Marcos was supported by the Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Scheme (number 2018210).

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.