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Wind energy harvesting for electricity generation has a significant role in overcoming the challenges involved with climate change and the energy resource implications involved with population growth and political unrest. Indeed, there has been significant growth in wind energy capacity worldwide with turbine capacity growing significantly over the last two decades. This confidence is echoed in the wind power market and global wind energy statistics. However, wind energy capture and utilisation has always been challenging. Appreciation of the wind as a resource makes for difficulties in modelling and the sensitivities of how the wind resource maps to energy production results in an energy harvesting opportunity. An opportunity that is dependent on different system parameters, namely the wind as a resource, technology and system synergies in realizing an optimal wind energy harvest. This paper presents a thorough review of the state of the art concerning the realization of optimal wind energy harvesting and utilisation. The wind energy resource and, more specifically, the influence of wind speed and wind energy resource forecasting are considered in conjunction with technological considerations and how system optimization can realise more effective operational efficiencies. Moreover, non-technological issues affecting wind energy harvesting are also considered. These include standards and regulatory implications with higher levels of grid integration and higher system non-synchronous penetration (SNSP). The review concludes that hybrid forecasting techniques enable a more accurate and predictable resource appreciation and that a hybrid power system that employs a multi-objective optimization approach is most suitable in achieving an optimal configuration for maximum energy harvesting.



This research received no external funding.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.