Document Type

Theses, Ph.D


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

Thesis successfully submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) to the Technological University Dublin in 2013.


The primary goal of this research was to develop novel ice cream products using the principles of molecular gastronomy. An ice cream model system (emulsion) was developed, in which the effects of ingredient levels on stability and formation were investigated and optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Two characteristic volatiles of banana (isoamyl acetate and furfuryl acetate) were added to the optimised emulsion, and their headspace emission was quantified using Solid Phase Microextraction with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. RSM was used to investigate the main and interactive effects of ingredient, salt and pH levels on the headspace emission of these volatiles. Salt was found to significantly influence (p ≤ 0.05) headspace emission of isoamyl acetate. The pairing of novel foods (banana and bacon (B+BN), banana and basmati rice (B+R), and banana and olive oil (B+O)) was investigated as an important sensory phenomenon with a key interest in determining how different components in the selected food pairings (both volatile and non-volatile) affect and interact with other components to influence sensory perception. Consumer sensory evaluation (n = 85) showed that B+R and B+BN were significantly more acceptable (p ≤ 0.05) pairings than B+O. Correlation of descriptive sensory analysis (n = 28) and organic volatile profiling was conducted to try to elucidate the hedonic results. Two ice cream product recipes were formulated to provide a matrix for the two preferred novel food pairings (B+R and B+BN). Product acceptability was assessed using two consumer panels representing general and specific markets. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between hedonic results of the two panels suggest that the B+R ice cream may be more suited to a general retail product, whereas the B+BN ice cream may be more suited to a selective culinary market.