Author ORCID Identifier

Document Type

Book Chapter


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence



Publication Details

Authors' accepted version.

Published version in Examining the Phenomenon of “Teaching Out-of-field” (Springer).


This chapter discusses teacher learning and professional development of out-of-field teachers from the point of view of the literature. It examines what makes this kind of learning and development effective and explores the ideas surrounding the varying rationale for the introduction of such teacher learning and professional development opportunities. Classical approaches to professional development are discussed in addition to several emerging international models of professional development that are currently being employed in the Republic of Ireland, England and Australia for in-service out-of-field teachers of mathematics predominantly but also a range of other subject disciplines (in the case of South Korea). Details of the structure of each of the models of professional development for in-service teachers are outlined using a country case study approach. Comparisons are made between the techniques employed in each country to upskill out-of-field teachers in specific disciplines. This chapter also proposes an international framework for teacher learning and professional development for out-of-field teachers that encompasses the best aspects of each country’s approach.