Authors

Elisabet Henderson, Agencia de Salut Publica de Barcelona
Xavier Continente, Agencia de Salut Publica de Barcelona
Esteve Fernandez, Institut Catala d'Oncologia,
Olena Tigova, Institut Català d'Oncologia
Nuria Cortes-Francisco, Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona
Silvano Gallus, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS
Alessandra Lugo, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS
Sean Semple, Institute for Social Marketing and Health, University of Stirling
Rachel O'Donnell, Institute for Social Marketing and Health, University of Stirling
Luke Clancy, Technological University DublinFollow
Sheila Keogan, Institute for Social Marketing and Health, University of Stirling
Ario Ruprecht, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori
Alessandro Borgini, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori
Anna Tzortzi, George D. Behrakis Research Lab-Hellenic Cancer Society
Vergina K. Vyzikidou, George D. Behrakis Research Lab-Hellenic Cancer Society
Giuseppe Gornini, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT), Plaza Cronista Isidoro Valverde
Angel Lopez-Nicolas, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT), Plaza Cronista Isidoro Valverde
Joan B. Soriano, Consortium for Biomedical Research in Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES)
Gergana Geshanova, Smoke-free Life Coalition
Joseph Osman, OFT Conseil, Office Français de santé et bien-être au Travail
Ute Mons, Cancer Prevention Unit & WHO Collaborating Centre for Tobacco Control, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ),
Krzysztof Przewozniak, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology
Jose Precioso, Instituto de Educação, Universidade do Minho
Ramona Brad, Healthy Romania Generation 2035 Association
Maria J. Lopez, Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona
TackSHS Project Investigators

Document Type

Article

Rights

This item is available under a Creative Commons License for non-commercial use only

Disciplines

1.6 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Publication Details

Science of the Total Environment

Abstract

Introduction: Although smoking restrictions at child-related settings are progressively being adopted, school out-door entrances are neglected in most smoke-free policies across Europe.

Objectives:To describe secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and tobacco-related signs in outdoor entrances of primary schools in Europe according to area-level socioeconomic status (SES), smoke-free policy, national smoking prevalence, and geographical region.

Methods:In this cross-sectional study we monitored vapor-phase nicotine concentrations at 220 school outdoor entrances in 11 European countries (March 2017–October 2018). To account for nicotine presence, we used the laboratory's limit of quantification of 0.06μg/m3as point threshold. We also recorded the presence of smell of smoke, people smoking, cigarette butts, and ashtrays. Half of the schools were in deprived areas. We grouped countries according to their Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) score, smoking prevalence (2017–2018), and United Na-tions M49 geographical region.

Results:There were detectable levels of nicotine in 45.9% of the outdoor entrances, in 29.1% smell of smoke, in43.2% people smoking, in 75.0% discarded butts, and in 14.6% ashtrays. Median nicotine concentration was below the laboratory's limit of quantificationb0.06μg/m3(Interquartile range:b0.06–0.119). We found higher SHS levels in countries with lower TCS scores, higher national smoking prevalence, and in the Southern and East-ern European regions. People smoking were more common in schools from lower area-level SES and in countries with lower TCS scores (pb0.05).

Conclusions: Smoking at school outdoor entrances is a source of SHS exposure in Europe. These findings support the extension of smoking bans with a clear perimeter to the outdoor entrances of schools.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140743

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