Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Environmental sciences, Bioprocessing technologies, Biocatalysis, Fermentation, Agriculture, Agricultural biotechnology and food biotechnology

Publication Details

Bioengineering (MDPI)

Bioengineering 2018, 5, 93; doi:10.3390/bioengineering5040093


Agro-industrial waste is highly nutritious in nature and facilitates microbial growth. Most agricultural wastes are lignocellulosic in nature; a large fraction of it is composed of carbohydrates. Agricultural residues can thus be used for the production of various value-added products, such as industrially important enzymes. Agro-industrial wastes, such as sugar cane bagasse, corn cob and rice bran, have been widely investigated via different fermentation strategies for the production of enzymes. Solid-state fermentation holds much potential compared with submerged fermentation methods for the utilization of agro-based wastes for enzyme production. This is because the physical–chemical nature of many lignocellulosic substrates naturally lends itself to solid phase culture, and thereby represents a means to reap the acknowledged potential of this fermentation method. Recent studies have shown that pretreatment technologies can greatly enhance enzyme yields by several fold. This article gives an overview of how agricultural waste can be productively harnessed as a raw material for fermentation. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of studies conducted in the production of different commercially important enzymes using lignocellulosic food waste has been provided.