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Most of the model equations for water waves are approximations for the long-wave propagation regimes, since most of the energy of the wave motion is concentrated in these waves. Long waves (or shallow-water waves) are defined usually as the depth to wavelength ratio δ = h/λ < 0.05. Several famous integrable nonlinear equations, like the K d V equation [1,2], are models for long waves of small amplitude. The short waves (or waves over deep water) are usually defined with δ > 0.5, and the intermediate waves (or transitional waves) - with 0.05 < δ < 0.5. The intermediate and short waves received a lot less attention, and one reason is perhaps the fact that the corresponding approximations lead to more complicated, nonlinear and nonlocal equations. In [3] an integral equation for surface waves has been proposed for arbitrary wavelengths and finite depth. The problem has been studied in [4] and model equations both for long and short waves are derived from the governing equations as well. The short-wave effects usually compete with the capillarity effects and then resonances can be observed — these have been studied quite a lot, see for example [5–12]. For the intermediate long waves or for waves on deep water the so-called Benjamin–Ono (BO) [13–15] and the Intermediate Long Wave Equation (ILWE) [16–18] are derived for the internal waves below a flat surface, which leads to some simplifications and these models are in fact integrable.


Science Foundation Ireland under Grant number 21/FFP-A/9150.

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