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This paper investigates the efficiency of two instructional design conditions: a traditional design based on the direct instruction approach to learning and its extension with a collaborative activity based upon the community of inquiry approach to learning. This activity was built upon a set of textual trigger questions to elicit cognitive abilities and support knowledge formation. A total of 115 students participated in the experiments and a number of third-level computer science classes where divided in two groups. A control group of learners received the former instructional design while an experimental group also received the latter design. Subsequently, learners of each group individually answered a multiple-choice questionnaire, from which a performance measure was extracted for the evaluation of the acquired factual, conceptual and procedural knowledge. Two measures of mental workload were acquired through self-reporting questionnaires: one unidimensional and one multidimensional. These, in conjunction with the performance measure, contributed to the definition of a measure of efficiency. Evidence showed the positive impact of the added collaborative activity on efficiency.
Orru, G., & Longo, L. (2020). Direct and Constructivist Instructional Design: A Comparison of Efficiency Using Mental Workload and Task Performance. Human Mental Workload: Models and Applications, 99–123. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-62302-9_7