Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Computer Sciences


The penetration of renewable energy resources into electric power networks has been increased considerably to reduce the dependence of conventional energy resources, reducing the generation cost and greenhouse emissions. The wind and photovoltaic (PV) based systems are the most applied technologies in electrical systems compared to other technologies of renewable energy resources. However, there are some complications and challenges to incorporating these resources due to their stochastic nature, intermittency, and variability of output powers. Therefore, solving the optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD) problem with considering the uncertainties of renewable energy resources is a challenging task. Application of the Marine Predators Algorithm (MPA) for solving complex multimodal and non-linear problems such as ORPD under system uncertainties may cause entrapment into local optima and suffer from stagnation. The aim of this paper is to solve the ORPD problem under deterministic and probabilistic states of the system using an improved marine predator algorithm (IMPA). The IMPA is based on enhancing the exploitation phase of the conventional MPA. The proposed enhancement is based on updating the locations of the populations in spiral orientation around the sorted populations in the first iteration process, while in the final stage, the locations of the populations are updated their locations in adaptive steps closed to the best population only. The scenario-based approach is utilized for uncertainties representation where a set of scenarios are generated with the combination of uncertainties the load demands and power of the renewable resources. The proposed algorithm is validated and tested on the IEEE 30-bus system as well as the captured results are compared with those outcomes from the state-of-the-art algorithms. A computational study shows the superiority of the proposed algorithm over the other reported algorithms.



European Union; Enterprise Ireland; National Research and Development Agency of Chile (ANID)