Author ORCID Identifier

Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Computer Sciences

Publication Details

International Journal of Medical Informatics


Objective: The development of a middleware information model to facilitate better interoperability between Personal and Electronic Health Record systems in order to allow exchange of Patient Generated Health Data and Observations of Daily Leaving between patients and providers in order to encourage patient self-management.

Materials and methods: An information model based on HL7 standards for interoperability has been extended to support PGHD and ODL data types. The new information models uses HL7 CDA to represent data, is instantiated as a Protégé ontology and uses a set of mapping rules to transfer data between Personal and Electronic Health Record systems.

Results: The information model was evaluated by executing a set of use case scenarios containing data exported from three consumer health apps, transformed to CDA according to developed mapping rules and validated against a CDA schema. This allowed various challenges to emerge as well as revealed gaps in current standards in use and the information model has been refined accordingly.

Discussion and conclusion: Our proposed middleware solution offers a number of advantages. When modifications are made to either a Personal or Health Electronic Health Record system or any integrated consumer app, they can be incorporated by altering only the instantiation of the information model. Our proposition uses current standards in use such as CDA. The solution is applicable to any EHR system with HL7 CDA support.