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Neurosurgery. 60(1):167-178, January 2007. doi: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000249210.89096.6C


OBJECTIVE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain tumor for which there is no cure. Adenoviral-mediated transfer of conditional cytotoxic (herpes simplex virus [HSV] 1-derived thymidine kinase [TK]) and immunostimulatory (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand [Flt3L]) transgenes elicited immune-mediated long-term survival in a syngeneic intracranial GBM model in rodents. However, the lack of a large GBM animal model makes it difficult to predict the outcome of therapies in humans. Dogs develop spontaneous GBM that closely resemble the human disease; therefore, they constitute an excellent large animal model. We assayed the transduction efficiency of adenoviral vectors (Ads) encoding beta-galactosidase (betaGal), TK, and Flt3L in J3T dog GBM cells in vitro and in the dog brain in vivo. METHODS: J3T cells were infected with Ads (30 plaque-forming units/cell; 72 h) encoding betaGal (Ad-betaGal), TK (Ad-TK), or Flt3L (Ad-Flt3L). We determined transgene expression by immunocytochemistry, betaGal activity, Flt3L enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and TK-induced cell death. Ads were also injected intracranially into the parietal cortex of healthy dogs. We determined cell-type specific transgene expression and immune cell infiltration. RESULTS: Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of HSV1-TK, Flt3L, and betaGal was detected in dog glioma cells in vitro (45% transduction efficiency) and in the dog brain in vivo (10-mm area transduced surrounding each injection site). T cells and macrophages/activated microglia infiltrated the injection sites. Importantly, no adverse clinical or neuropathological side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate effective adenoviral-mediated gene transfer into the brain of dogs in vivo and support the use of these vectors to develop an efficacy trial for canine GBM as a prelude to human trials.




National Institute of Health, Bram and Elaine Goldsmith Chair in Gene Therapeutics, The Linda Tallen and David Paul Kane Annual Fellowship, Board of Governors at Cedars Sinai Medical Center.