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3.4 HEALTH BIOTECHNOLOGY
We have investigated the connection between the four-dimensional architecture of the bacterial nucleoid and the organism's global gene expression programme. By localizing the transcription machinery and the transcriptional outputs across the genome of the model bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at different stages of the growth cycle, a surprising disconnection between gene dosage and transcriptional output was revealed. During exponential growth, gene output occurred chiefly in the Ori (origin), Ter (terminus) and NSL (non-structured left) domains, whereas the Left macrodomain remained transcriptionally quiescent at all stages of growth. The apparently high transcriptional output in Ter was correlated with an enhanced stability of the RNA expressed there during exponential growth, suggesting that longer mRNA half-lives compensate for low gene dosage. During exponential growth, RNA polymerase (RNAP) was detected everywhere, whereas in stationary phase cells, RNAP was concentrated in the Ter macrodomain. The alternative sigma factors RpoE, RpoH and RpoN were not required to drive transcription in these growth conditions, consistent with their observed binding to regions away from RNAP and regions of active transcription. Specifically, these alternative sigma factors were found in the Ter macrodomain during exponential growth, whereas they were localized at the Ori macrodomain in stationary phase.
Cameron, D.S., Dillon, S.C. & Kroger, C. (2017). Broad-scale redistribution of mRNA abundance and transcriptional machinery in response to growth rate in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Microbial Genomics, vol. 3, no.10. doi:10.1099/mgen.0.000127