Document Type

Book Chapter


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Nutrition, Dietetics

Publication Details

This is an Accepted Manuscript of a book chapter published by Routledge/CRC Press in Advances in Probiotic Technology (2015), available online:


The term probiotic was technically defined as “live microorganisms which upon ingestion in certain numbers exert health benefits beyond inherent nutrition” (FAO/ WHO 2001). This definition requires that the microorganisms must be alive and present in high numbers, generally more than 109 cells per daily ingested dose. Probiotic food products are considered as functional foods which are defined to contain health-promoting components beyond traditional nutrients and the addition of probiotic cultures is one approach in which foods could be modified to become functional.