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Moisture content, shrinkage, water activity (Aw), color and texture of cooked chickpeas and soybeans during convective, microwave and combined microwave–convective drying were studied. Combined drying was significantly (P < 0.05) faster than either convective or microwave drying, and resulted in less shrinkage of the dehydrated product. Rapid burning occurred when samples were dried below a Aw of 0.27 ± 0.07 for chickpeas (P < 0.05), and 0.13 ± 0.04 for soybeans (P < 0.05). Both chickpeas and soybeans displayed a transitional behavior in texture when dried to a Aw below 0.40 ± 0.10 (P < 0.05) for chickpeas, and below 0.63 ± 0.15 (P < 0.05) for soybeans, when samples became brittle. Shelf stable dehydrated chickpea and soybean products with low water activity (Aw = 0.35) and good visual quality could be obtained within 14 min of combination drying.
Gowen, A. et al. (2007). Characteristics of cooked chickpeas and soybeans during combined microwave–convective hot air drying. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 31(4), 433-453. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2007.00139.x