Euan Bowditch, Forestry and Conservation Research Group, Inverness College UHI, 1 Inverness Campus, Highlands, IV2 5NA, UK
Giovanni Santopuoli, Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Ambiente e Alimenti, Universit`a degli Studi del Molise, Via Francesco De Sanctis, Campobasso I-86100, Italy
Boyżdar Neroj, Bureau for Forest Management and Geodesy, Sekocin Stary, Poland
Jan Svetlik Jan Svetlik, Department of Forest Ecology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, Brno 613 00, Czech Republic
Mark Tominlson, National School of Forestry, University of Cumbria, Ambleside campus, Rydal Rd, Ambleside LA22 9BB, UK
Vivien Pohl, Technological University Dublin, Environmental Sustainability and Health Institute, 7 Grangegorman Lower, Dublin, IrelandFollow
Admir Avdagić, University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Forestry, Chair of Forest Management and Urban Greenery, Zagrebačka 20, Sarajevo 71000, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Miren del Rio, INIA, Forest Research Centre, Department of Forest Dynamics and Management, Crta. La Coruña km 7.5, Madrid 28040, Spain
Tzetvan Zlatanov Tzetvan Zlatanov, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
Höhn Maria, Szent István University, Faculty of Horticultural Science, Páter Károly utca 1, Gödöllő, Budapest 2100, Hungary
Gabriela Jamnická, Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Forest Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štúrova 2, Zvolen 960 53, Slovakia
Yusuf Serengil, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa, Department of Watershed Management, 34473 Bahcekoy Istanbul, Turkey
Murat Sarginci, Duzce University Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Engineering, Duzce 81620, Turkey
Sigríður Júlía Brynleifsdóttir, Ísafjörður, Skógræktin, Suðurgötu 12, Ísafirði 400, Iceland
Jerzy Lesinki, Department of Forest Biodiversity, University of Agriculture, Al. 29-Listopada 46, Krakow 31-425, Poland
João C. Azevedo, Centro de Investigação de Montanha, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, Bragança 5300-253, Portugal

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Climate change impacts are an increasing threat to forests and current approaches to management. In 2020, Climate-smart Forestry (CSF) definition and set of indicators was published. This study further developed this work by testing the definition and indicators through a forest manager survey across fifteen member European countries. The survey covered topic areas of demographics, climate change impacts, definition and indicators assessment, as well as knowledge and communication. Overall, forest managers considered the threat of climate change to their forests as high or critical and 62% found the CSF definition clear and concise; however, the minority suggested greater simplification or nuance. Indicators were viewed as comprehensive but too numerous to integrate into management activities. Two highest ranking indicators were ‘Trees species composition’, and ‘Erosion protection and maintenance of soil condition’. Many managers were aware of suitable alternative species, but also stressed that greater resources should focus on exploring adaptable provenances. Demonstration sites and interactive guides were ranked highest for communication and dissemination; however, online multimedia tools and workshops were also ranked highly. Local perspectives on providing more relevant CSF ranged from silviculture systems, finance and funding, education and training, and social awareness, to tree species mixes and development of protective functions. In summary, forest managers were generally open to CSF, but required greater guidance and proof of application.



This research received no external funding.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License.