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Encapsulation is a versatile technique used to protect sensitive bioactive compounds under gastrointestinal conditions. In this study, nanoencapsulation of chlorogenic acid into the apple seed protein matrix was performed using the green technique ultrasonication to protect it from harsh gastric conditions and increase its biological activity and bioavailability upon digestion. Both nano (Nano-Chl) and native capsules (NT-Chl) were characterised by particle size, charge, structure, and morphology. The encapsulation efficiency, release behaviour, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties were also evaluated. The experimental results show that the particle size of the NT-Chl and Nano- Chl was found in the range of 1.4m to 708 nm. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be 69% and 80% for NT-Chl and Nano-Chl, respectively. Furthermore, an in vitro digestion study revealed that Nano-Chl showed controlled-release behaviour under simulated intestinal conditions in comparison to NT-Chl. Moreover, Nano-Chl showed enhanced antioxidant and antidiabetic activity in comparison to NT-Chl after simulated digestion. It was concluded that the protein from apple seeds could be utilised as a functional ingredient itself or as a wall material for the encapsulation of sensitive bioactive compounds. Furthermore, these encapsulated particles can be fortified into different food formulations for the development of functional food.

DOI 10.3390/foods11223702