Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Microbiology, Marine, engineering, sea vessels, Toxicology, Infectious diseases, Fishery

Publication Details

Open access


The present study employs a data review on the presence and aggregation of oxytetracycline (OTC) and resistance (AMR) bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and distribution of the contaminated effluent with the aid of shallow and deep ocean currents. The study aims to determine the fate of OTC, AMR bacteria in seafood, and demonstrate a relationship between AMR levels and human health. This review includes (1) OTC, (2) AMR bacteria, (3) heavy metals in aquatic environments, and their relationship. Few publications describe OCT in surface waters. Although, OTC and other tetracyclines were found in 10 countries in relatively low concentrations, the continuous water mass movement poses a contamination risk for mariculture and aquaculture. There are 10 locations showing AMR bacteria in treated and untreated hospital effluent. Special effort was made to define the geography distribution of OTC, AMR bacteria, and heavy metals detected in WWTPs to show the likely dissemination in aquatic environment. The presence of OTC in surface waters in Asia, USA, and Europe, can potentially impact seafood globally with the aid of ocean currents. Moreover, low concentrations of heavy metals exert environmental pressure and contribute to AMR dissemination. Recommended solutions are (1) quantitative analysis of OTC, heavy metals, and AMR bacteria to define their main sources, (2) employ effective technologies in urban and industrial wastewater treatment, and (3) select appropriate modelling from Global Ocean Observing System to predict the OTC, heavy metals, and AMR bacteria distribution.