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Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


1.4 CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Chemical engineering (plants, products)

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Food Chemistry


The present work illustrates the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the direct analysis of liquid food products. The aim of the experiment was to predict calcium content in ready-to-feed infant formula. The analysis was performed by a LIBS system coupled to a liquid sample chamber with a rotatory wheel that presents the liquid to the laser beam as a thin film. Multivariate analysis with partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed to correlate LIBS spectral data to reference calcium contents. The obtained PLSR model exhibited a good fit and linearity, as indicated by the coefficients of determination for calibration (Rc 2) and cross-validation (Rcv 2), with values of 0.96 and 0.89, respectively. The robustness of the calibration model was assessed by external validation showing a root-mean-square error of prediction of 6.45 mg 100 mL−1. These results demonstrated the potential of LIBS for real-time analysis of liquid food products.



Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine of Ireland

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