Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


2. ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Electrical and electronic engineering

Publication Details

Vol. 26, No. 26 | 24 Dec 2018 | OPTICS EXPRESS 34634


In recent years, salinity sensing has attracted much attention in potential areas ranging from marine monitoring, marine circulation, marine climate and environment protection in oceanography [1–4]. Generally, traditional methods of salinity measurement have been based on electronic methods (electrochemical) to detect the existence of chlorine ions of the seawater [5,6]. However, this method is affected greatly from the harsh environment, such as high corrosivity, extreme temperature and strong electromagnetic interference and is not used widely in micro scale due to its large size and complex structure. Electrochemical sensors are also prone to cross-sensitivity from and can even be damaged by other species e.g. nitrates (from Agriculture) and Sulphuric compounds (e.g. from dissolved SO2) Therefore, there is a clear need for new sensors with compact size, high stability, good selectivity and electromagnetic immunity.