Document Type

Conference Paper


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Business and Management.

Publication Details

Published: in Perspectives on Purchasing for the New Millenium, Proceedings of the 8th International Purchasing and Supply Education and Research Association (IPSERA) Conference, pp. 739-744, Belfast, March 1999.


One critical weakness of traditional company-wide business improvement models, which are often based on systems thinking, is that the focus is largely on a company’s internal operations and business processes. As a result of the increasingly complex global supply chains of which companies are part, improving ones own business is no guarantee of success in today’s business environment. This paper describes an extension of traditional systems approaches beyond the operations of an individual company to the complete supply chain. The result is the