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Journal of BIOphotonics


Herein, we investigated the use of multimodal Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopic microscopy for the elucidation of drug uptake and subsequent cellular responses. Firstly, we compared different methods for the analysis of the combined data. Secondly, we evaluated whether the combined analysis provided enough benefits to justify the fusion of the data. A459 cells inoculated with doxorubicin (DOX) at different times were fixed and analysed using each technique. Raman spectroscopy provided high sensitivity to DOX and enabled an accurate estimation of the drug uptake at each time point, whereas IR provided a better insight into the resultant changes in the biochemical composition of the cell. In terms of benefits of data fusion, 2D correlation analysis allowed the study of the relationship between IR and Raman variables, whereas the joint analysis of IR and Raman enabled the correlation of the different variables to be monitored over time. In summary, the complementary nature of IR and Raman makes the combination of these vibrational techniques an appealing tool to follow drug kinetics and cellular response.

Funding information: H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, Grant/Award Number: Spectro-metrics- 020-MSCA-IF-2017 Project ID:79628; National Science Centre, Grant/Award Number: UMO 2016/23/B/NZ4/01379



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