Author ORCID Identifier


Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence



Publication Details

“The potential of Raman spectroscopy in the diagnosis of dysplastic and malignant oral lesions”, Ola Ibrahim, Mary Toner, Stephen Flint, Hugh J. Byrne, Fiona M. Lyng, Cancers,13, 619 (2021)


Early diagnosis, treatment and/or surveillance of oral premalignant lesions are important in preventing progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The current gold standard is through histopathological diagnosis, which is limited by inter and intra observer and sampling errors. The objective of this work was to use Raman spectroscopy to discriminate between benign, mild, moderate and severe dysplasia and OSCC in formalin fixed paraffin preserved (FFPP) tissues. The study included 72 different pathologies from which 17 were benign lesions, 20 mildly dysplastic, 20 moderately dysplastic, 10 severely dysplastic and 5 invasive OSCC. The glass substrate and paraffin wax background were digitally removed and PLSDA with LOPO cross-validation was used to differentiate the pathologies. OSCC could be differentiated from the other pathologies with an accuracy of 70%, while the accuracy of the classifier for benign, moderate and severe dysplasia was ~60%. The accuracy of the classifier was lowest for mild dysplasia (~46%). The main discriminating features were increased nucleic acid contributions and decreased protein and lipid contributions in the epithelium and decreased collagen contributions in the connective tissue. Smoking and the presence of inflammation were found to significantly influence the Raman classification with respective accuracies of 76% and 94%.



Science Foundation Ireland,