Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Computer Sciences, Electrical and electronic engineering


This work proposes an intelligent allocation of distributed generation (DG) units and shunt reactive compensators (SRC) with high penetration capacities into distribution systems for power loss mitigation using the Bald Eagle Search (BES) optimization algorithm. The intelligent allocation causes a reduction in voltage variations and enhances the voltage stability of the systems. The SRC units include shunt capacitors (SC), Static Var Compensators (SVC), and Distribution Static Compensators (DSTATCOM), which are determined according to their capacities. The optimization study includes the 33-bus and the 118-bus distribution systems as medium to large systems. Performance parameters, including the reactive power loss, Total Voltage Deviation (TVD), and Stability Index (SI), besides the power loss, are recorded for each optimization case study. When the BES algorithm optimizes 1, 2, and 3 DG units operating at optimal power factor (OPF) into the 33-bus systems, percentage reductions of power loss reach 67.84%, 86.49%, and 94.44%, respectively. Reductions of 28.26%, 34.47%, 35.24%, and 35.44% are achieved in power loss while optimizing 1, 3, 5, and 7 SRC units. With a combination of DG/SRC units, the power loss reductions achieve 72.30%, 93.89%, and 97.49%, optimizing 1, 3, and 5 pairs of them. Similar reductions are achieved for the rest of the performance parameters. With high penetration of compensators into the 118-bus system, the percentage reductions of power loss are 29.14%, 73.27%, 83.72%, 90.14%, and 93.41% for optimal allocations of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 DG units operating at OPF. The reduction reaches 11.15%, 39.08% with 1 and 21 devices when optimizing the SRC. When DG SRC units are optimized together, power loss turns out to be 32.83%, 73.31%, 83.32%, 88.52%, and 91.29% with 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 pairs of them. The approach leads to an enhanced voltage profile near an acceptable range of bus voltages, reduces the voltage fluctuation substantially, and enhances the system stability. The study also ensures the BES algorithm’s capability to solve these nonlinear optimization problems with high decision-variable numbers.



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