Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


3.3 HEALTH SCIENCES, Sport and fitness sciences


Objectives: The objective of the investigation was to observe the impact of player wellbeing on the training output of elite soccer players.

Design: Prospective cohort design.

Methods: Forty-eight soccer players (age: 25.3 ± 3.1 years; height: 183 ± 7 cm; mass: 72 ± 7 kg) were involved in this single season observational study across two teams. Each morning, pre-training, players completed customised perceived wellbeing questionnaires. Global positioning technology devices were used to measure external load (total distance, total high-speed running distance, high speed running, player load, player load slow, maximal velocity, maximal velocity exposures). Players reported ratings of perceived exertion using the modified Borg CR-10 scale. Integrated training load ratios were also analysed for total distance:RPE, total high speed distance:RPE player load:RPE and player load slow:RPE respectively.

Results: Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellbeing Z-score on external and integrated training load measures. A wellbeing Z-score of −1 corresponded to a −18 ± 2 m (−3.5 ± 1.1%), 4 ± 1 m (−4.9 ± 2.1%,) 0.9 ± 0.1 km h−1 (−3.1 ± 2.1%), 1 ± 1 (−4.6 ± 2.9%), 25 ± 3 AU (−4.9 ± 3.1%) and 11 ± 0.5 AU (−8.9 ± 2.9%) reduction in total high speed distance, high speed distance, maximal velocity, maximal velocity exposures, player load and player load slow respectively. A reduction in wellbeing impacted external:internal training load ratios and resulted in −0.49 ± 0.12 m min−1, −1.20 ± 0.08 m min−1,−0.02 ± 0.01 AU min−1 in total distance:RPE, total high speed distance:RPE and player load slow:RPE respectively.

Conclusions: The results suggest that systematic monitoring of player wellbeing within soccer cohorts can provide coaches with information about the training output that can be expected from individual players during a training session.