Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Medical engineering, Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems

Publication Details

Drug Discovery Today 2016; 21; 9; 1437-1445


The field of tissue engineering is developing biomimetic biomaterial scaffolds which are showing increasing therapeutic potential for the repair of cardiovascular tissues. However, a major opportunity exists to use them as 3D in vitro models for the study of cardiovascular tissues and disease in addition to drug development and testing. These in vitro models can span the gap between 2D culture and in vivo testing thus reducing cost, time and the ethical burden of current approaches. This review outlines the progress to date and requirements for the development of ideal in vitro 3D models for blood vessels, heart valves and myocardial tissue.



This work was supported by the Irish Heart Foundation (grant number 1045940) to FJO’B and CMB, the European Research Council European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) to FJO’B and the Science Foundation Ireland Career Development Award (grant number 13/CDA/2119) to SWK.