Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

Journal of civil engineering and architecture 9 (2015) 283-290.


Lighting design is one of the fastest changing areas in building engineering. It has evolved significantly in recent years due to changing technology and demands for improved quality, better control, reduced energy and sustainability. This paper is an overview of what is happening in Europe and elsewhere and examines the literature to find that latest recommendations in the Code for Lighting issued by the SLL (Society of Light and Lighting) in the UK change previous demands for equal illuminance across a working plane to more specific and demanding criteria. There are recommendations for qualitative metrics and better distribution of light so as to enhance the visual appearance of interiors. European standards are also examined and the LENI (lighting energy numerical indicator) has been found to be a better way of reducing energy than installed load. New LED (light-emitting diode) lamp technology is examined and daylight is discussed in the context of these changing demands. It is found that lighting standards and design are changing for the better but that standards will need to evolve further if they are to ensure good quality lighting.