Optimal Design of Photovoltaic, Biomass, Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Tank Units and Electrolyzer Hybrid System for a Remote Area in Egypt
Document Type Article
The shift of transportation technology from internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) in recent times due to their lower emissions, fuel costs, and greater efficiency has brought EV technology to the forefront of the electric power distribution systems due to their ability to interact with the grid through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. The greater adoption of EVs presents an ideal use-case scenario of EVs acting as power dispatch, storage, and ancillary service-providing units. This EV aspect can be utilized more in the current smart grid (SG) scenario by incorporating demand-side management (DSM) through EV integration. The integration of EVs with DSM techniques is hurdled with various issues and challenges addressed throughout this literature review. The various research conducted on EV-DSM programs has been surveyed. This review article focuses on the issues, solutions, and challenges, with suggestions on modeling the charging infrastructure to suit DSM applications, and optimization aspects of EV-DSM are addressed separately to enhance the EV-DSM operation. Gaps in current research and possible research directions have been discussed extensively to present a comprehensive insight into the current status of DSM programs employed with EV integration. This extensive review of EV-DSM will facilitate all the researchers to initiate research for superior and efficient energy management and EV scheduling strategies and mitigate the issues faced by system uncertainty modeling, variations, and constraints.