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Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence




Due to limited fossil fuel resources, a growing increase in energy demand and the need to maintain positive environmental effects, concentrating solar power (CSP) plant as a promising technology has driven the world to find new sustainable and competitive methods for energy production. The scheduling capability of a CSP plant equipped with thermal energy storage (TES) surpasses a photovoltaic (PV) unit and augments the sustainability of energy system performance. However, restricting CSP plant application compared to a PV plant due to its high investment is a challenging issue. This paper presents a model to assemble a combined heat and power (CHP) with a CSP plant for enhancing heat utilization and reduce the overall cost of the plant, thus, the CSP benefits proved by researches can be implemented more economically. Moreover, the compressed air energy storage (CAES) is used with a CSP-TES-CHP plant in order that the thermoelectric decoupling of the CHP be facilitated. Therefore, the virtual power plant (VPP) created is a suitable design for large power grids, which can trade heat and electricity in response to the market without restraint by thermoelectric constraint. Furthermore, the day-ahead offering strategy of the VPP is modeled as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem with the goal of maximizing the profit in the market. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed model. The proposed VPP has a 2% increase in profit and a maximum 6% increase in the market electricity price per day compared to the system without CAES.