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The temperature-sensitive performance of a microfiber coil resonator (MCR) is thoroughly investigated. The MCR is fabricated by wrapping a microfiber on a PMMA rod coated with a UV-curable low refractive index epoxy. The temperature sensitivity is measured by investigating the correlation between the shift of the resonant wavelength and the surrounding temperature. It is determined that a range of parameters of the MCRs, including the gap between two adjacent rings, the diameter of the supporting rod, the number of rings, and the diameter of the microfiber, have a great influence on the temperature sensitivity of the MCRs. By optimizing the fabrication parameters of MCRs, such as the gap of the adjacent microrings and the diameter of supporting rod, etc., the maximum temperature sensitivity obtained is 237.31 pm/°C, which is about 2.3 times higher than that of MCR embedded in EFIRON UV-373 polymer and 23 times higher than that of MCR embedded in Teflon because of the strong thermo-optic and thermal expansion effects of the low refractive index epoxy and the supporting rod used in the experiments. Theoretical (numerical) simulation and experiment results are considered in the assessment of the optical performance improvement of MCR-based optical fiber temperature sensors.