Document Type

Theses, Ph.D


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Electrical and electronic engineering

Publication Details

A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Technological University Dublin 2021.


Electrification in the rural areas sometimes become very challenging due to area accessibility and economic concern. Standalone Microgrids (MGs) play a very crucial role in these kinds of a rural area where a large power grid is not available. The intermittent nature of distributed energy sources and the load uncertainties can create a power mismatch and can lead to frequency and voltage drop in rural isolated community MG. In order to avoid this, various intelligent load shedding techniques, installation of micro storage systems and coupling of neighbouring MGs can be adopted. Among these, the coupling of neighbouring MGs is the most feasible in the rural area where large grid power is not available. The interconnection of neighbouring MGs has raised concerns about the safety of operation, protection of critical infrastructure, the efficiency of power-sharing and most importantly, stable mode of operation.

Many advanced control techniques have been proposed to enhance the load sharing and stability of the microgrid. Droop control is the most commonly used control technique for parallel operation of converters in order to share the load among the MGs. But most of them are in the presence of large grid power, where system voltage and frequency are controlled by the stiff grid. In a rural area, where grid power is not available, the frequency and voltage control become a fundamental issue to be addressed. Moreover, for accurate load sharing a high value of droop gain should be chosen as the R/X ratio of the rural network is very high, which makes the system unstable. Therefore, the choice of droop gains is often a trade-off between power-sharing and stability. In the context, the main focus of this PhD thesis is the fundamental investigations into control techniques of inverter-based standalone neighbouring microgrids for available power sharing. It aims to develop new and improved control techniques to enhance performance and power-sharing reliability of remote standalone Microgrids.

In this thesis, a power management-based droop control is proposed for accurate power sharing according to the power availability in a particular MG. Inverters can have different power setpoints during the grid-connected mode, but in the standalone mode, they all need their power setpoints to be adjusted according to their power ratings. On the basis of this, a power management-based droop control strategy is developed to achieve the power-sharing among the neighbouring microgrids. The proposed method helps the MG inverters to share the power according to its ratings and availability, which does not restrict the inverters for equal power-sharing.

The paralleled inverters in coupled MGs need to work in both interconnected mode and standalone mode and should be able to transfer between modes seamlessly. An enhanced droop control is proposed to maintain the frequency and voltage of the MGs to their nominal value, which also helps the neighbouring MGs for seamless (de)coupling. This thesis also presents a mathematical model of the interconnected neighbouring microgrid for stability and robustness analysis. Finally, a laboratory prototype model of two MGs is developed to test the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.