Document Type

Theses, Ph.D


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

A thesis successfully submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering ,Technological University Dublin.


Significant integration of photovoltaic distributed generation (PVDG) in the low voltage distribution network (LVDN) could potentially pose threats and challenges to the core activity of distribution system operators (DSO), which is to transport electrical energy in a reliable and cost-effective way. The main aim of this research is to investigate the active planning and operation of LVDNs with increased PVDG integration through steady state power system analysis. To address the impacts of voltage profile fluctuation due to power flow modification, this research proposes a probabilistic risk assessment of power quality (PQ) variations and events that may arise due to significant PVDG integration. A Monte Carlo based simulation is applied for the probabilistic risk assessment. This probabilistic approach is used as a tool to assess the likely impacts due to PVDG integration against the extreme-case scenarios. With increased PVDG integration, site overvoltage is a likely impact, whereas voltage unbalance reduces when compared with no or low PVDG penetration cases. This is primarily due to the phase cancellation between the phases. The other aspect of the work highlights the fact that the implementation of existing volumetric charges in conjunction with net-metering can have negative impacts on network operator’s revenue. However, consideration of capacity charges in designing the existing network tariff structure shows incentivising the network operator to perform their core duties under increased integration of PVDG. The site overvoltage issue was also studied and resolved in a novel way, where the active and reactive power of the PVDG inverters at all the PV installed premises were optimally coordinated to increase the PV penetration from 35.7% to 66.7% of the distribution transformer rating. This work further explores how deficiencies in both reactive power control (RPC) and active power control (APC) as separate approaches can be mitigated by suitably combining RPC and APC algorithms. A novel “Q” or “PF” limiter was proposed to restrict frequent switching between the two droop characteristics while ensuring a stabilizing (smoothened) voltage profile in each of the PV installed nodes. This novel approach not only alleviates the voltage fluctuation but also reduces the overall network losses.