Document Type

Theses, Ph.D


Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy to Technological University Dublin, 2018.


The work reported in this thesis commenced with a review of methods for creating random binary sequences for encoding data locally by the client before storing in the Cloud. The first method reviewed investigated evolutionary computing software which generated noise-producing functions from natural noise, a highly-speculative novel idea since noise is stochastic. Nevertheless, a function was created which generated noise to seed chaos oscillators which produced random binary sequences and this research led to a circuit-based one-time pad key chaos encoder for encrypting data. Circuit-based delay chaos oscillators, initialised with sampled electronic noise, were simulated in a linear circuit simulator called PSpice. Many simulation problems were encountered because of the nonlinear nature of chaos but were solved by creating new simulation parts, tools and simulation paradigms. Simulation data from a range of chaos sources was exported and analysed using Lyapunov analysis and identified two sources which produced one-time pad sequences with maximum entropy. This led to an encoding system which generated unlimited, infinitely-long period, unique random one-time pad encryption keys for plaintext data length matching. The keys were studied for maximum entropy and passed a suite of stringent internationally-accepted statistical tests for randomness. A prototype containing two delay chaos sources initialised by electronic noise was produced on a double-sided printed circuit board and produced more than 200 Mbits of OTPs. According to Vladimir Kotelnikov in 1941 and Claude Shannon in 1945, one-time pad sequences are theoretically-perfect and unbreakable, provided specific rules are adhered to. Two other techniques for generating random binary sequences were researched; a new circuit element, memristance was incorporated in a Chua chaos oscillator, and a fractional-order Lorenz chaos system with order less than three. Quantum computing will present many problems to cryptographic system security when existing systems are upgraded in the near future. The only existing encoding system that will resist cryptanalysis by this system is the unconditionally-secure one-time pad encryption.