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Understanding patient progression from symptomatic COVID-19 infection to a severe outcome represents an important tool for improved diagnoses, surveillance, and triage. A series of models have been developed and validated to elucidate hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality in patients from the Republic of Ireland. This retrospective cohort study of patients with laboratory-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 infection included data extracted from national COVID-19 surveillance forms (i.e., age, gender, underlying health conditions, occupation) and geographically-referenced potential predictors (i.e., urban/rural classification, socio-economic profile). Generalised linear models and recursive partitioning and regression trees were used to elucidate COVID-19 progression. The incidence of symptomatic infection over the study-period was 0.96% (n= 47,265), of whom 3781 (8%) required hospitalisation, 615 (1.3%) were admitted to ICU and 1326 (2.8%) died. Models demonstrated an increasingly efficacious ft for predicting hospitalization [AUC 0.816 (95% CI 0.809, 0.822)], admission to ICU [AUC 0.885 (95% CI 0.88 0.89)] and death [AUC of 0.955 (95% CI 0.951 0.959)]. Severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40) was identified as a risk factor across all prognostic models; severely obese patients were substantially more likely to receive ICU treatment [OR 19.630] or die [OR 10.802]. Rural living was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization (OR 1.200 (95% CI 1.143–1.261)]. Urban living was associated with ICU admission [OR 1.533 (95% CI 1.606–1.682)]. Models provide approaches for predicting COVID-19 prognoses, allowing for evidence-based decision making pertaining to targeted non-pharmaceutical interventions, risk-based vaccination priorities and improved patient triage.