Document Type



1. NATURAL SCIENCES, 1.6 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Cell biology,, Biochemistry and molecular biology, 3. MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES, Oncology

Publication Details

Authors' accepted manuscript.

Janith Wanigasekara, Patrick J. Cullen, Paula Bourke, Brijesh Tiwari, James F. Curtin, Advances in 3D culture systems for therapeutic discovery and development in brain cancer, Drug Discovery Today, Volume 28, Issue 2, 2023, 103426, ISSN 1359-6446,


This review focuses on recent advances in 3D culture systems that promise more accurate therapeutic models of the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor microenvironment (TME), such as the unique anatomical, cellular, and molecular features evident in human GBM. The key components of a GBM TME are outlined, including microbiomes, vasculature, extracellular matrix (ECM), infiltrating parenchymal and peripheral immune cells and molecules, and chemical gradients. 3D culture systems are evaluated against 2D culture systems and in vivo animal models. The main 3D culture techniques available are compared, with an emphasis on identifying key gaps in knowledge for the development of suitable platforms to accurately model the intricate components of the GBM TME.



Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) and the Teagasc Walsh Fellowship (2017/228)