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Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


1.3 PHYSICAL SCIENCES, Atomic, Molecular and Chemical Physics


Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP) and Leucine-Lysine-Proline (LKP) are food-derived tripeptides whose antihypertensive functions have been demonstrated in hypertensive rat models. However, peptides display low oral bioavailability due to poor intestinal epithelial permeability and instability. IPP and LKP were formulated into nanoparticles (NP) using chitosan (CL113) via ionotropic gelation and then coated with zein. Following addition of zein, a high encapsulation efficiency (EE) (>80%) was obtained for the NP. In simulated gastric fluid (SGF), 20% cumulative release of the peptides was achieved after 2 h, whereas in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), ~90% cumulative release was observed after 6 h. Higher colloidal stability (39–41 mV) was observed for the coated NP compared to uncoated ones (30–35 mV). In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed no reduction in cellular viability of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 and HepG2 liver cells upon exposure to NP and NP components. Administration of NP encapsulating IPP and LKP by oral gavage to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) attenuated systolic blood pressure (SBP) for 8 h. This suggests that the NP provide appropriate release to achieve prolonged hypotensive effects in vivo. In conclusion, chitosan-zein nanoparticles (CZ NP) have potential as oral delivery system for the encapsulation of IPP and LKP.

DOI 10.3390/ijms231911160

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.