Document Type



Ophthalmology, 3.3 HEALTH SCIENCES

Publication Details


Copyright: © 2021 Moore et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


To examine whether data sourced from electronic medical records (EMR) and a large industrial spectacle lens manufacturing database can estimate refractive error distribution within large populations as an alternative to typical population surveys of refractive error.



Arne Ohlendorf and Siegfried Wahl are employees of Carl Zeiss Vision International GmbH. These authors provided access to some of the data used in this study and reviewed the work before submission. The funder provided support in the form of salaries for authors [AO, SW], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the ‘author contributions’ section.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.