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J. Phys. Chem. C, 111(4), 2007, 1605–1611


In the absence of a dopant or precursor odification, anatase to rutile transformation in synthetic TiO2 sually ccurs at a temperature of 600 700 °C. Conventionally, metal oxide dopants (e.g., Al2O3 nd SiO2 are used o tune the anatase to rutile transformation. A simple methodology is reported here to extend the anatase utile transformation by employing various concentrations of urea. XRD and Raman spectroscopy were used uring thermal treatment. A significantly higher anatase phase (97%) as been obtained at 800 C with use of a 1:1 Ti(OPr)4 urea composition and 11% anatase composition is etained even after calcining the powder at 900 . On comparison a sample that has been prepared without rea showed that rutile phases started to form at a temperature as low as 600C. The effect of smaller mounts of urea such as 1:0.25 and 1:0.5 Ti(OPr) urea has also been studied and compared. The investigation oncluded that the stoichiometric modification by urea 1:1 Ti(OPr) urea composition is most effective in

extending the anatase to rutile phase transformation by 200°C compared to the unmodified sample. In addition, ET analysis carried out on samples calcined at 500°C showed that the addition of urea up to 1:1 Ti(OPr4:urea increased the total pore volume (from 0.108 to 0.224 cm3/g) and average pore diameter (11 to 30 nm)compared to the standard sample. Samples prepared with 1:1 Ti(OPr)4:urea composition calcined at 900 °C how significantly higher photocatalytic activity compared to the standard sample prepared under similarconditions. Kinetic analysis shows a marked increase in the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine 6G on oing from the standard sample (0.27 min, decoloration in 120 min) to the urea-modified sample (0.73min-1, decoloration in 50 min).