Document Type

Book Chapter


This item is available under a Creative Commons License for non-commercial use only


Business and Management.

Publication Details

5th Teaching Innovation & Entrepreneurship Excellence Awards 2019 - An Anthology of Case Histories, Publisher: ACPI, pp.1-19. ISBN 9781912764365.


‘Since we live in an age of innovation, a practical education must prepare a [wo]man for work that does not yet exist and cannot yet be clearly defined’ - Peter Drucker Following reviews of the relevant IEET (Innovation, Entrepreneurship Education & Training) literature and after assessing current thinking and practice in the domain, it was concluded that, in the absence of empirical evidence in favour of a particular pedagogical approach, that a portfolio of coordinated practice-based methods is an appropriate approach for developing value-based learning outcomes at this time (2019). These pedagogical approaches focus on students’ attempts to discover, create and capture value by experiencing, playing, observing, creating and thinking reflectively and not just understanding, knowing and talking as in more traditional approaches (Neck & Greene, 2011). This innovative approach will be demonstrated (in terms of specifying learning outcomes) utilising the flagship MSc (Business & Entrepreneurship) programme in the Technological University Dublin which has adopted this approach successfully since 2014. The paradigmatic approach applies equally to novice and expert and thus applies across student populations. It is inclusive and therefore success is both idiosyncratic and multidimensional. It requires continuous practice; do – reflect - learn and not learn-do as in traditional approaches. Reflective practice thus becomes increasingly important for developing learning outcomes. The approach proposed is therefore particularly suitable for unpredictable environments .The teacher is empowered to experiment with a pedagogical portfolio that emphasises diverse tools and techniques. These approaches are broken down into five discrete primary pedagogies – Starting Businesses (Practice – experiencing/feeling); Serious Games and simulations (Play); Observation (Field trips and research); Design – based learning (Create, Co-create) and Reflective Practice (Deep learning, Marton, 1975) (i.e. reflection - on - practice, reflection- in- practice (Schon, 1987). Expected learning outcomes then are based on the students’ attempts to create value by experiencing, playing, observing, creating and thinking. Each learning outcome depending on the pedagogical approaches utilised. Learning outcomes can be stated in tangible terms. These learning outcomes can be delivered on other programmes by improved Programme/Course design, support for staff (upskilling) and appropriate value-based assessment criteria.