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Analytical chemistry, Tropical medicine
Infection with the dengue virus is currently clinically detected according to different biomarkers in human blood plasma, commonly measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, including non-structural proteins (Ns1), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). However, there is little or no mutual correlation between the biomarkers, as demonstrated in this study by a comparison of their levels in samples from 17 patients. As an alternative, the label free, rapid screening technique, Raman spectroscopy has been used for the characterisation/diagnosis of healthy and dengue infected human blood plasma samples. In dengue positive samples, changes in specific Raman spectral bands associated with lipidic and amino acid/protein content are observed and assigned based on literature and these features can be considered as markers associated with dengue development. Based on the spectroscopic analysis of the current, albeit limited, cohort of samples, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) coupled Factorial Discriminant Analysis, yielded values of 97.95% sensitivity and 95.40% specificity for identification of dengue infection. Furthermore, in a comparison of the normal samples to the patient samples which scored low for only one of the biomarker tests, but high or medium for either or both of the other two, PCA-FDA demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.38 % and specificity of 86.18 %, thus providing an unambiguous screening technology.
Mahmood, T., Nawaz, H. & Ditta, A. (2018). Raman Spectral Analysis for Rapid Screening of Dengue Infection. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscop, Jul. 5, no. 200, pg. 136-142. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2018.04.018