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Environmental sciences, Water resources, Microbiology, Biochemical research methods, Freshwater biology, Ecology, Biodiversity conservation, Biology, Civil engineering, Architecture engineering, Construction engineering, Transport engineering, Materials engineering, Paper and wood, Environmental and geological engineering, Petroleum engineering, Environmental biotechnology, Environmental biotechnology related ethics, Bioprocessing technologies, Bioproducts, Biomaterials, Biomaterials
The global road network spans 16.3 million km , of which 5 million km is in the EU. These road networks fulfil major economic and social goals by facilitating the movement of goods and people throughout the EU, and are therefore of the utmost importance to the economic and social life of the EU . National governments invest heavily in their road networks, e.g., in 2014, EUR 53.33 billion was invested in the development and maintenance of the EU road network . Each year, the world produces 1.6 trillion tonnes of asphalt , of which 218 million tonnes is produced in the EU . The average cost of asphalt in the EU is EUR 200 per tonne. These figures show that the construction and maintenance of road networks are a significant cost to the tax payer.
Tabakovic, A. (2020). Bio-Binder—Innovative Asphalt Technology. Applied Sciences, Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 23, pg. 8655. doi:10.3390/app10238655
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