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Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence


Food and beverages

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36th EFFoST International Conference held in Dublin, 7 - 9 November 2022.



Note by Note (NbN) cooking and 3D food printing individually and in combination allow for the creation of customized nutritious foods. NbN cooking involves making foods from pure compounds or mixtures of compounds and allows for reduction of food spoilage and increase of the global output of agriculture.


NbN recipes were developed using pure compounds and mixtures of pure compounds, and printed with a Procusini® 3D food printer. The food item was selected. In this study, “Pasta” was selected for the soya and hemp samples and “Chocolate” for the pea protein sample. The recipes were prepared and the mixes were added to a 60mL cartridge, and then inserted into the printer which was then calibrated. The object for production was selected (lobster or cube). Production was started and the lobster (7 mins) or the cube (8 mins) were printed onto the silicone mat and then cooked for 15 mins at 150 oC in an Electrolux oven.


After a number of trials, to optimize the texture, a prototype savoury NbN recipe was developed which included cornflour, oil, sugar, salt, water, plant protein-rich ingredients i.e. either soya, hemp or pea-protein and dietary fibre. The three resulting mixes were printed either in a lobster shape (soya and hemp) or a cube shape (pea protein). During cooking of each sample there was loss of volume, due to water evaporation, but not of shape. The colour of each sample darkened and the texture became crisp. The final protein contents for the cooked soya lobster was 17.5%, 9.7% for the hemp and 12.9% for the pea protein.


The recipes are prototypes and can be produced in various shapes, colours, flavours (including odours) and textures. The customized foods can be served to diners or developed as food products and allow for an expansion in creativity and innovation which addresses the dietary and sustainability requirements of a growing number of consumers e.g. vegan and/or lactose-intolerant, dietary needs of sports athletes and reduction of food waste.