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Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence

Publication Details

Burke R, Danaher P. 2022. Developing a Customised Note by Note Prototype Recipe Which Can be 3D Printed, International Journal of Molecular and Physical Gastronomy, 2022, 1, 1-9.


Note by Note (NbN) cooking and 3D food printing individually and in combination allow for the creation of customized foods. A NbN recipe was developed and printed using a Procusini 3.0, 3D food printer. The recipe was adapted from a commercial powdered pastry dough recipe, to create two versions of a prototype food, containing in each case a different plant-based protein, i.e., soya (Glycine max L.) or hemp (Cannabis sativa). The printed foods were identical in shape and had a crisp consistency following cooking. They had different colours and contained different proteins in the amounts of 10.3 % of soya or 5.7 % of hemp before cooking, which increased to 17.5 % and 9.7 % respectively following evaporation of water during cooking. The main challenge was optimizing the consistency of each recipe mixture before adding it to the syringe prior to printing. The development of the prototype foods which were created in this study shows that recipes of pure compounds and/ or mixtures of compounds could be prepared by innovative chefs who want to surprise their diners. Food product developers can create customised foods for consumers, who wish to eat for example more plant-based proteins, those with allergies or intolerances to certain proteins and/or sports athletes.