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Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence



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Journal of Culinary Science & Technology ,10(3):223-238 · July 2012 


Optimization of the volatile release of two commonly used flavor compounds (isoamyl acetate and furfuryl acetate) from a food emulsion model system was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM). Twenty-seven random order settings were established using a central composite face-centered (CCF) experimental design. The main and combined effects of four independent variables—concentration of isoamyl acetate (50–90 ppm), furfuryl acetate (20–30 ppm), salt (NaCl; 0.1–2%), and pH (5–7)—on the responses were examined. The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimal concentration level of the four variables leading to optimal release of the volatile compounds. Quantitative measurements were conducted using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Salt concentration and isoamyl acetate concentration were found to have significant positive effects (p ≤ 0.001) on the release of isoamyl acetate. The optimization procedure indicated that the optimal conditions leading to the desirable volatile release were isoamyl acetate 90 ppm, furfuryl acetate 30 ppm, salt 2% w/v, and pH 6.0176. The findings of this study can enable chefs and food manufacturers to optimize conditions for maximum flavor release from food emulsion products.


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