Document Type



Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike 4.0 International Licence



Publication Details

Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research:


It is often assumed that the known physical laws form a closed system and are complete. It is also assumed that biological theories require no additional principles that are fundamental other than those we already know. Assumptions such as these are acting as a barrier to progress in biological theories and an understanding of consciousness. This paper examines the unexplained inconsistencies among fundamental particles and forces and the fundamental gaps in our knowledge of biology and the cell in particular that may impact on such progress. Also, the laws of quantum mechanics are examined and found to be grossly incomplete. Furthermore, gravitational decoherence times are way too long and electromagnetic decoherence times are way too short to relate to millisecond brain processes. Surprisingly, weak force decoherence times over cellular distances are of the relevant dynamical timescale needed, suggesting that if any force is associated with the global properties in and between neurons (such as consciousness) it is the weak force. This finding concurs with a twenty year old theory that argues for a fundamental link between the weak force, electron neutrino and the biological cell. That theory also predicted the mass of the electron neutrino that is soon to be verified. The consequences for biology and future consciousness theories, of this radical change of paradigm, are considered.